GTQ – Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire

Trismus (restricted mouth opening) is a symptom that leads to difficulties with chewing, swallowing, pain and poor oral hygiene and can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life, especially with regards to social function and social contact.

To evaluate trismus and its treatment outcomes, a multidimensional, self-administered, trismus-specific questionnaire has been created: Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ 2).

GTQ 2 can be used for all patients with restricted mouth opening and has in statistical testing shown good psychometric properties, i.e. high validity and reliability.

For further information regarding the development and validation of the GTQ, please see:

  • Johnson, J., Carlsson, S., Johansson, M., Pauli, N., Rydén, A., Fagerberg-Mohlin, B., & Finizia, C. (2012). Development and validation of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ). Oral oncology48(8), 730–736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2012.02.013
  • Johansson, M., Karlsson, T., & Finizia, C. (2020). Further validation of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ). PloS one15(12), e0243805. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243805

Translation and validation of the GTQ has been completed in Telugu, for further information, see reference:

  • Prakash, B. B., Chava, S., Gondi, J. T., Chandra Sekara Rao S, L. M., Finizia, C., Rao, T. S., & Nemade, H. O. (2021). Correction to: Translation of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire‑2 into Telugu and its Validation for use in Indian Patients. Indian journal of surgical oncology12(4), 710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13193-021-01384-8

The GTQ2 have been translated to Chinese and French, for further information, see references:

  • Shao CH, Tuomi L, Finizia C, et al. Trismus in head and neck cancer: translation and validation of the Chinese version of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire-2 (C-GTQ-2). Clin Oral Investig. 2024;28(2):146. Published 2024 Feb 13. doi:10.1007/s00784-024-05537-1
  • Girod-Roux M, Tuomi L, Finizia C, et al. A translation and validation of the French version of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire 2 (F-GTQ-2). J Oral Rehabil. 2024;51(6):1034-1040. doi:10.1111/joor.13672

Translations and validation of the Italian GTQ2 is currently ongoing.


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