GTQ – Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire

Trismus (restricted mouth opening) is a symptom that leads to difficulties with chewing, swallowing, pain and poor oral hygiene and can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life, especially with regards to social function and social contact.

To evaluate trismus and its treatment outcomes, a multidimensional, self-administered, trismus-specific questionnaire has been created: Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ 2).

GTQ 2 can be used for all patients with restricted mouth opening and has in statistical testing shown good psychometric properties, i.e. high validity and reliability.

For further information regarding the development and validation of the GTQ, please see:

  • Johnson, J., Carlsson, S., Johansson, M., Pauli, N., Rydén, A., Fagerberg-Mohlin, B., & Finizia, C. (2012). Development and validation of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ). Oral oncology48(8), 730–736.
  • Johansson, M., Karlsson, T., & Finizia, C. (2020). Further validation of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ). PloS one15(12), e0243805.

Translation and validation of the GTQ has been completed in Telugu, for further information, see reference: Prakash, B. B., Chava, S., Gondi, J. T., Chandra Sekara Rao S, L. M., Finizia, C., Rao, T. S., & Nemade, H. O. (2021). Correction to: Translation of the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire‑2 into Telugu and its Validation for use in Indian Patients. Indian journal of surgical oncology12(4), 710.

Translations and validation studies of the GTQ 2 are currently ongoing in Chinese, French and Italian.

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